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Site References

Prostate Cancer Institute Site References imageProstate Cancer Institute, LLC
(Trading as www.prostate.net)

Website Bibliography and References

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Diagnosis

Johns Hopkins Health Alerts: retrieved 11/15/09

Nick Mulcahy. “Statins Associated with Reduction in PSA Levels but Implications are Unclear and Questioned.” MedScape Today. http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/582724?src=mpnews&spon=34&uac=97391AG. Accessed July 29, 2009.

“Overview: Prostate Cancer. How is Prostate Cancer Found?” American Cancer Society. http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_2_3X_How_is_prostate_cancer_found_36.asp. July 29, 2009.

“Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test.” National Cancer Institute: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/detection/psa

PSA Rising: http://www.psa-rising.com/blog/2009/09/prostate-test-going-ahead-scientist-says/

Singer EA, Palapattu GS, van Wijngarrden E. Prostate-specific antigen levels in relation to consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acetaminophen: results from the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Cancer 2008; 113(8):2053-57. See also Fowke JH, Motley SS, Smith JA Jr, et al. Association of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, prostate specific antigen and prostate volume. J Urol 2009; 181(5):2064-70.

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

Barnard RJ, Obayashi N, Aronson WJ. Effect of diet and exercise intervention on the growth of prostate epithelial cells. Prostate Cancer Prostate Dis 2008;11(4):362-66;

Poon KS, McVary KT. Dietary patterns, supplement use, and the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Curr Urol Rep 2009; 10(4):279-86; Meigs JB, Mohr B, Barry MJ, et al. Risk factors for clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia in a community-based population of healthy aging men. J Clin Epidemiol 2001; 54(9):935-44.

Berger AP, Bartsch G, Deibl M, et al. BJU Int 2006; 98(5):1038-42.

Berger AP, Deibl M, Halpern EJ. Vascular damage induced by type 2 diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Diabetologia 2005a; 48(4):784-89.

Berger AP, Deibl M, Leonhartsberger N, et al. Vascular damage as a risk factor for benign prostatic hyperplasia and erectile dysfunction. BJU Int 2005; 96(7):1073-1078.

Dal Maso L, Zucchetto A, Tavani A, et al. Lifetime occupational and recreational physical activity and risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Int J Cancer 2006; 118(10):2632-35.

Fitzpatrick JM. Minimally invasive and endoscopic management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. In AJ Wein, ed., Campbell-Walsh Urology 9th ed vol 3, pp. 2803-44. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier, 2007.

Hammarsten J, Hogstedt B, Holthuis N, et al. Components of the metabolic syndrome-risk factors for the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 1998; 1(3):157-62.

Johns Hopkins Site: http://www.johnshopkinshealthalerts.com/special_reports/Prostate_reports/BPHTreatment_landing.html

Kristal AR, Arnold KB, Schenk JM et al. Race/ethnicity, obesity, health related behaviors and the risk of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia: results from the prostate cancer prevention trial. J Urol 2007; 177(4):1395-1400.

Kristal AR, Arnold KB, Schenk JM, et al. Dietary patterns, supplement use, and the risk of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia: results from the prostate cancer prevention trial. Am J Epidemiol 2008; 167(8):925-34.

Megis JB, Mohr B, Barry MJ, et al. Risk factors for clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia in a community-based population of healthy aging men. J Clin Epidemiol 2001; 54(9):935-944.

Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. Merck, 2006;  1329, 1330

Mongiu AK, McVary KT. Lower urinary tract symptoms, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and obesity. Current Urology Reports 2009 Jul; 10(4): 247-53.

Moyad MA. Urol Nurs 2003; 23(6):439-41.

Nandeesha H, Koner BC, Dorairajan LN, et al. Hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia in non-diabetic benign prostatic hyperplasia. Clin Chim Acta 2006; 370(1-2):89-93.

National Association for Continence. http://www.nafc.org/media/statistics/enlarged-prostate-bph/

Nicolás Torralba JA, Tornero Ruiz J, Bañón Pérez V, et al.  [Relation between hypertension and clinical cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia] Arch Esp Urol 2003; 56(4):355-58. Sugaya K, Kadekawa K, Ikehara A, et al. Influence of hypertension on lower urinary tract symptoms in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Int J Urol 2003; 10(11):596-74.

Parsons JK, Bergstrom J, Barrett-Connor E. Lipids, lipoproteins and the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia in community-dwelling men. BJU Int 2008; 101(3):313-18.

Platz EA, Kawachi I, Rimm EB, et al. Physical activity and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Arch Intern Med 1998; 158(21):2349-56.

Sarma V, Kellog Parsons, J. Diabetes and benign prostatic hyperplasia: emerging clinical connections. Curr Urol Rep 2009; 10(4):267-75.

UrologyHealth.org. “Diagnosis of BPH.”  http://www.urologyhealth.org/search/index.cfm?topic=173&search=bph&searchtype

Williams PT. Effects of running distance and performance on incident benign prostatic hyperplasia. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2008; 40(10):1733-39.

Prostatitis

Capodice JL, Bemis DL, Buttyan R, Kaplan SA, Katz AE. Complementary and alternative medicine for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2005 Dec; 2(4): 495-501.

Duloy AM, Calhoun EA, Clemens JQ. Economic impact of chronic prostatitis. Curr Urol Rep 2007 Jul; 8(4): 336-39.

Liang CZ, Li HJ, Wang ZP, Xing JP et al. The prevalence of prostatitis-like symptoms in China. J Urology 2009 Aug; 182(2): 558-63

NIH Consensus Conference 1998

Professional Guide to Diseases, 9th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009.

Wallner LP, Clemens JQ, Sarma AV. Prevalence of and risk factors for prostatitis in African American men: the Flint Men’s Health Study. Prostate 2009; 69(1):24.32.

WebMD: “Who is affected by prostatitis.” Updated December, 27, 2007. Accessible at http://www.webmd.com/hw-popup/who-is-affected-by-prostatitis. Viewed July 17, 2009.

Prostate Cancer

American Cancer Society: “Detailed Guide: Prostate Cancer. What Are the Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer?”  last reviewed July 30, 2009. Accessible at http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_2X_What_are_the_risk_factors_for_prostate_cancer_36.asp?rnav=cri. Viewed August 21, 2009. ; also “Let’s Talk About It.” Accessible at http://www.cancer.org/docroot/PED/content/PED_1_5X_Lets_Talk_About_It.asp. Viewed August 24, 2009.

Antonelli JA, Jones LW, Banez LL, Thomas JA, Anderson K et al. Exercise and prostate cancer risk in a cohort of veterans undergoing prostate needle biopsy. J Urol 2009 Nov; 183(5): 2226-31.

Bettuzzi S, Brausi M, Rizzi F, et al. Chemoprevention of human prostate cancer by oral administration of green tea catechins in volunteers with high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia; a preliminary report from a one-year proof-of-principle study. Cancer Res 2006; 66(2):1234-40.

Bostwick DG, Qian J. High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Modern Pathology 2004; 17:360-79.

Carpenter WR, Godley PA, Clark JA, et al. Racial differences in trust and regular source of patient care and the implications for prostate cancer screening use. Cancer 2009 July 27.

Cohen JH, Kristal AR, Stanford J. Fruit and vegetable intakes and prostate cancer risk. J Nat’l Cancer Inst 2000;92(1):61-68. For a review of studies, see: Ma RW, Chapman K. A systematic review of the effect of diet in prostate cancer prevention and treatment. J Hum Nutr Diet 2009; 22(3):187-99.

Davies JB, Smaldone MC, Sadetsky N, et al. The impact of obesity on overall and cancer specific survival in men with prostate cancer. J Urol 2009; 182(1):112-17.

Esser KA, Harpole CE, Prins GS, et al. Physical activity reduces prostate carcinogenesis in a transgenic model. Prostate 2009 June 1.

Freedland SJ, Bãnez LL, Sun LL, et al. Obese men have higher-grade and larger tumors: an analysis of the duke prostate center database. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2009 Jul 7.

Garland CF, Gorham ED, Mohr SB, et al. Vitamin D for cancer prevention: global perspective. Ann Epidemiol 2009;19(7):468-83.

Gong Z, Agalliu I, Lin DW, et al. Obesity is associated with increased risk of prostate cancer metastasis and death after initial cancer diagnosis in middle-aged men. Cancer 2007; 109(6):1192-1202; Littman AJ, White E, Kristal AR. Anthropometrics and prostate cancer risk. Am J Epidemiol 2007; 165(11):1271-79.

Itsiopoulos C, Hodge A, Kaimakamis M. Can the Mediterranean diet prevent prostate cancer? Mol Nutr Food Res 2009; 53(2):227-39.

Jayachadnran J, Bãnez LL, Aronson WJ, et al. Obesity as a predictor of adverse outcome across black and white race: results from the Shared Equal Access Regional Hospital (SEARCH) Database. Cancer 2009 Aug 10.

Jian L, Xie LLP, Lee AH, Binns CW. Protective effect of green tea against prostate cancer: a case-control study in southeast China. Int’l J Cancer 2004;108(1):130-35.

Johns Hopkins Prostate Bulletin, Spring 2010

Ornish D, Magbanua MJ, Weidner G, et al. Changes in prostate gene expression in men undergoing an intensive nutrition and lifestyle intervention. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2008; 105(24):8369–74.

Parent ME, Desy M, Siemiatycki J. Does exposure to agricultural chemicals increase the risk of prostate cancer among farmers? Mcgill J Med 2009 Jan; 12(1):70-77

Peters U, Littman AJ, Kristal AR, et al. Vitamin E and selenium supplementation and risk of prostate cancer in the Vitamins and lifestyle (VITAL) study cohort. Cancer Cause Control 2008; 19(1):75-87.

Platz EA, Rimm EB, Willett WC, et al. Racial variation in prostate cancer incidence and in hormonal system markers among male health professionals. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000; 92(24):2009-17.

Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group. Radical prostatectomy versus watchful waiting in early prostate cancer. NEJM 2005 May 12; 352(19): 1977-84

Schuurman AG, van den Brandt PA, Dorant E, Goldbohm RA. Animal products, calcium and protein and prostate cancer risk in The Netherlands Cohort Study. Br J Cancer 1999; 80(7):1107-13.

Stanford JL, Feng Z, Hamilton AS, et al. Urinary and sexual function after radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer: the Prostate Cancer Outcomes Study. JAMA 2000 Jan 19; 283(3): 354-60.

Thomson IM, Lucia MS, Redman MW, et al. Finasteride decreases the risk of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. J Urol 2007; 178(1):107-9.

Urology Channel, access Nov. 12, 2009; http://www.urologychannel.com/prostatecancer/treatment-radiation.shtml

van Roermund JG, van Basten JP, Kiemeney LA, et al. Impact of obesity on surgical outcomes following open radical prostatectomy. Urol Int 2009; 82(3):256-61.

Vickers AJ, Bianco FJ, Serio AM, Eastham JA, Schrag D, Klein EA et al. The surgical learning curve for prostate cancer control after radical prostatectomy. J Natl Cancer Inst 2007 Aug 1; 99(15): 1171-77

Winterich JA, Grzywacz JG, Quandt SA, et al. Men’s knowledge and beliefs about prostate cancer: education, race, and screening status. Ethn Dis 2009 Spring; 19(2): 199-203.

Nutrition

Bosetti C, Pelucchi C, LaVecchi C. Diet and cancer in Mediterranean countries: carbohydrates and fats. Public Health Nutr 2009 Sep; 12(9A): 1595-600

Campbell, T Colin. The China Study: The Most Comprehensive Study of Nutrition Ever Conducted and the Startling Implications for Diet, Weight Loss and Long-Term Health. Benbella Books, 2005.

Cheung E, Wadhera P, Dorff T, Pinski J. Diet and prostate cancer risk reduction. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2008 Jan; 8(1): 43-50.

Fallon S, Enig MG. Soy products: tragedy and hype. Nexus 2000 Apr-May 7(3)

Frattaroli J, Weidner G, Dnistrian AM, Kemp C, Daubenmier JJ, Marlin RO, Crutchfield L, Yglecias L, Carroll PR, Ornish D. Clinical events in prostate cancer lifestyle trial: results from two years of follow-up. Urology 2008 Dec; 72(6): 1319-23.

Itsiopoulos C, Hodge A, Kaimakamis M. Can the Mediterranean diet prevent prostate cancer? Mol Nutr Food Res 2009 Feb; 53(2): 227-39

Mayo Clinic: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/mediterranean-diet/CL00011

Ornish D, Weidner G, Fair WR, Marlin R, Pettengill EB et al. Intensive lifestyle changes may affect the progression of prostate cancer. J Urol 2005 Sep; 174(3): 1065-69.

Parkin M, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P. Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin 2005; 55:74-108

Perez-Lopez FR, Chedraui P, Haya J, Cuadros JL. Effects of the Mediterranean diet on longevity and age-related morbid conditions. Maturitas 2009 Oct 20; 64(2): 67-79

Platz EA. Diet and prostate health. Prostate Bulletin Special Report. Johns Hopkins University, 2006.

Syed DN, Suh Y, Afaq F, Mukhtar H. Dietary agents for chemoprevention of prostate cancer. Cancer Lett 2008 Jul 8; 265(2): 167-76.

Tariq N, Jenkins DJ, Vidgen E, et al. Effect of soluble and insoluble fiber diets on serum prostate specific antigen in men. J Urol 2000;163(1): 114-18.

Ultrawellness website: http://www.ultrawellness.com/blog/dean-ornish-nutrigenomics-prostate-cancer

Wang C, Catlin DH, Starcevic B, et al. Low-fat high-fiber diet decreased serum and urine androgens in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metabl 2005; 90(6):3550-59.

Astrup A, Larsen TM, Harper A. Atkins and other low-carbohydrate diets: hoax or an effective tool for weight loss? Lancet 2004; 364(9437): 897-99

Bilsborough SA, Crowe TC. Low-carbohydrate diets: what are the potential short- and long-term health implications? Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003; 12(4): 396-404

Sachhiko T, St. Jeor RD, Howard BV, Prewitt TE, Bovee V, Bazzarre T, Eckel RH. Dietary protein and weight reduction. Circulation 2001; 104:1869-74

The Times (London), September 27, 2003

WebMD accessed March 21, 2010; http://www.webmd.com/diet/atkins-diet-what-it-is

WebMD website: http://www.webmd.com/diet/features/benefits-mediterranean-diet

WHO Technical Report Series 916, available online at http://whqlibdoc.who.int/trs/WHO_trs_916.pdf ; published 2003

Weight Loss

Antonelli JA, Jones LW, Bañez LL, Thomas JA, Anderson K, Taylor LA, Gerber L, Anderson T, Hoyo C, Grant D, Freedland SJ.  Exercise and prostate cancer risk in a cohort of veterans undergoing prostate needle biopsy. J Urol 2009 Nov; 182(5):2226-31.

Buford TW, Cooke MB, Willoughby DS. Resistance exercise-induced changes of inflammatory gene expression within human skeletal muscle. Eur J Appl Physiol 2009 Aug 11.

Giubilei G, Mondaini N, Minervini A, et al. Physical activity of men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome not satisfied with conventional treatments—Could it represent a valid option? The physical activity and male pelvic pain trial: A double-blind, randomized study. J Urology 2007; 177(1): 159-165.

Gong Z, Agalliu I, Lin DW, Stanford JL, Kristal AR. Obesity is associated with increased risks of prostate cancer metastasis and death after initial cancer diagnosis in middle-aged men. Cancer 2007 Mar 15; 109(6): 1192-202.

Kenfield SA et al. Presented at the American Association for Cancer Research Frontier in Cancer Prevention Research Conference Dec. 6-9, 2009.

Kriketos A et al. Diabetes Care 2004; 27:629-30

Li H, Stampfer MJ, Mucci L, Rifai N, Qiu W, Kurth T, Ma J. A 25-year prospective study of plasma adiponectin and leptin concentrations and prostate cancer risk and survival. Clin Chem 2009 Nov. 12.

Prostate Cancer Foundation website. “Effects of Oxidation and Inflammation.”  http://www.prostatecancerfoundation.org/site/c.itIWK2OSG/b.5075073/k.9478/Effects_of_Oxidation_and_Inflammation.htm. Viewed 8/12/09.

Pedersen BK. The anti-inflammatory effect of exercise: its role in diabetes and cardiovascular disease control. Essays Biochem 2006; 42:105-17.

Rankovic G, Milicic B, Savic T, et al. Effects of physical exercise on inflammatory parameters and risk for repeated acute coronary syndrome in patients with ischemic heart disease. Vojnosanit Pregl 2009; 66(1):44-48.

Segal RJ, Reid RD, Courneya KS, et al. Randomized controlled trial of resistance or aerobic exercise in men receiving radiation therapy for prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 2009; 27(3):344-51.

Timmerman KL, Flynn MG, Coen PM, et al. Exercise training-induced lowering of inflammatory (CD14_CD16+) monocytes: a role in the anti-inflammatory influence of exercise? J Leukoc Biol 2008; 84(5):1271-78.

Lifestyle

Daling JR, Doody DR, Sun X, Trabert BL et al. Association of marijuana use and the incidence of testicular germ cell tumors. Cancer 2009 Mar 15; 115(6): 1215-23.

Gong Z, Kristal Ar, Schenk JM, Tangen CM, Goodman PJ, Thompson IM. Alcohol consumption, finasteride, and prostate cancer risk: results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. Cancer 2009 Aug 15; 115(16): 3661-69

Middleton FK, Chikritzhs T, Stockwell T, Bostrom A, Pascal R. Alcohol use and prostate cancer: a meta-analysis. Mol Nutr Food Res 2009 Feb; 53(2): 240-55.

National Institutes of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases

National Sleep Foundation. http://www.sleepfoundation.org/

Olea-Herrero N, Vara D, Malagarie-Cazenave S, Diaz-Laviada I.  Inhibition of human tumour prostate PC-3 cell growth by cannabinoids R (+)-Methanadamide and JWH-015: Involvement of CB2. Br J Cancer 2009; 101:940-50.

Roberts WW, Platz EA, Walsh PC. Association of cigarette smoking with extraprostatic prostate cancer in young men. J Urol 20203 Feb; 169(2): 512-16.

Watters JL, Park Y, Hollenback A, Schatzkin A, Albanes D. Cigarette smoking and prostate cancer in a prospective US cohort study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009 Sep; 18(9): 2427-35.

Weinmann S, Shapiro JA, Rybicki BA, Enger SM, et al. Medical history, body size, and cigarette smoking in relation to fatal prostate cancer. Cancer Causes Control 2009 Oct 9.

Natural Management

Biotherapy Clinic at http://www.biotherapy-clinic.com/prostatic_massage.html

Brown RP, Gerbarg PL. Yoga breathing, meditation, and longevity. Ann NY Acad Sci 2009 Aug; 1172:54-62.

Capodice JL, Jin Z, Bemis DL, Samadi D, Stone BA, Kapan S, Katz AE. A pilot study on acupuncture for lower urinary tract symptoms related to chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain. Chin Med 2007 Feb 6; 2:1.

Chiesa A, Serretti A. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for stress management in healthy people: a review and meta-analysis. J Altern Complement Med 2009 May; 15(5): 593-600.

Cohen DL, Bloedon LT, Rothman RL, Farrar JT et al. Iyengar yoga versus enhanced usual care on blood pressure in patients with prehypertension to stage I hypertension: a randomized controlled trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2009 Sep 4

Esch T, Duckstein J, Welke J, Braun V. Mind/body techniques for physiological and psychological stress reduction: stress management via Tai Chi training: a pilot study. Med Sci Monit 2007 Nov; 13(11): CR488-97.

Ledesma D, Kumano H. Mindfulness-based stress reduction and cancer: a meta-analysis. Psychooncology 2009 Jun; 18(6): 571-79.

Lee SW, Liong ML, Yuen KH et al. Acupuncture versus sham acupuncture for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain. Am J Med 2008; 121(1): 79.e1-7

Lee SH, Lee BC. Electroacupuncture relieves pain in men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: three-arm randomized trial. Urology 2009 May; 73(5): 1036-41.

MacLaughlin BW, Gutsmuths B, Pretner E, Jonas WB, Ives J, Kulawardane DV, Amri H. Effects of homeopathic preparations on human prostate cancer growth in cellular and animal models. Integr Cancer Ther 2006 Dec; 5(4): 362-72.

Pipe TB, Bortz JJ, Dueck A, Pendergast D, Buchda V, Summers J. Nurse leader mindfulness meditation program for stress management: a randomized controlled trial. J Nurs Adm 2009 Mar; 39(3): 130-37.

Rossi E, Endrizzi C, Panozzo MA, Bianchi A, De Fre M. Homeopathy in the public health system: a seven-year observational study at Lucca Hospital (Italy). Homeopathy 2009 Jul; 98(3): 142-48

Scheufele PM. Effects of progressive relaxation and classical music on measurements of attention, relaxation, and stress responses. J Behav Med 2000 Apr; 23(2): 207-28.

Thangapazham RL, Gaddipati JP, Rajeshkumar NV, Sharma A et al. Homeopathic medicines do not alter growth and gene expression in prostate and breast cancer cells in vitro. Integr Cancer Ther 2006 Dec; 5(4): 356-61

Webb MS, Smyth KA, Yarandi H. A progressive relaxation intervention at the worksite for African-American women. J Natl Black Nurses Assoc 2000 Dec; 11(2):1-6.

Weiss, Andrew. Beginning Mindfulness: Learning the Way of Awareness. New World Library, 2004.

Yoo HJ, Ahn SH, Kim SB, Kim WK, Han OS. Efficacy of progressive muscle relaxation training and guided imagery in reducing chemotherapy side effects in patients with breast cancer and in improving their quality of life. Support Care Cancer 2005 Oct; 13(10): 826-33.

Hormones

Cavalieri EL, Rogan EG. A unified mechanism in the initiation of cancer. Ann NY Acad Sci 2002 Apr; 959:341-54.

Georgetown: http://www.stumbleupon.com/su/6YWLOx/www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/04/100419150813.htm

Jankowska EA et al. Circulating estradiol and mortality in men with systolic chronic heart failure. JAMA 2009; 301(18): 1892-1901.

Khera M, Grober ED, Najara B, Colen JS, Mohamed O, Lamb DJ, Lipshultz LI> Testosterone replacement therapy following radical prostatectomy. J Sex Med 2009 Apr; 6(4): 1165-70.

Lee, John R. Hormone Balance for Men. What Your Doctor May Not Tell You about Prostate Health and Natural Hormone Supplementation. 2003 by Hormones Inc.

Lichten E. Testosterone information. Accessed Feb. 22, 2010: http://www.usdoctor.com/testone.htm

Leibowitz RL, Dorff TB, Tucker S, Symanowoski J, Vogelzang NJ. Testosterone replacement in prostate cancer survivors with hypogonadal symptoms. BJU Int 2009 Nov 5.

Thompson IM, Goodman PJ, Tangen CM, Lucia MS, Miller GJ et al. The influence of finasteride on the development of prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 2003 Jul 17; 349(3): 215-24.

Yang L, Gaikwad NW, Meza J, Cavalieri EL, Muti P, Trock B, Rogan EG. Noval biomarkers for risk of prostate cancer : results from a case-control study. Prostate 2009 Jan 1; 69(1): 41-48

Sex for Prostate Health

Bassil N, Alkaade S, Morley JE. The benefits and risks of testosterone replacement therapy: a review. Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management 2009 Jun; 5(3): 427-48.

Dimitropoulou P, Lophatananon A, Easton D, Pocock R, Dearnaley DP, Guy M, Edwards S et al. Sexual activity and prostate cancer risk in men diagnosed at a younger age. BJU Int 2009 Jan; 103(2): 178-85

Imamoto T, Suzuki H et al. Association between serum sex hormone levels and prostate cancer: effect of prostate cancer on serum testosterone levels. Future of Oncology 2009 Sep; 5(7): 1005-13

Leitzmann MF, Platz EA et al. Ejaculation frequency and subsequent risk of prostate cancer. JAMA 2004 Apr 7; 291(13): 1578-86.

WebMD: http://www.webmd.com/erectile-dysfunction/guide/drugs-linked-erectile-dysfunction

Weintraub A. Testosterone is Sure Looking Virile. Business Week Oct. 2009

Fruits and Vegetables

ARS/USDA website: http://www.ars.usda.gov/Aboutus/docs.htm?docid=4142

Bergman JM, Thompson LU, Dabrosin C. Flaxseed and its lignans inhibit estradiol-induced growth, angiogenesis, and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor in human breast cancer xenografts in vivo. Clin Cancer Res 2007 Feb 1; 13(3): 1061-67.

Chan R, Lok K, Woo J. Prostate cancer and vegetable consumption. Mol Nutr Food Res 2009 Feb; 53(2): 201-16.

Chen LH, Fang J, Sun Z, Li H, Wu Y, Denmark-Wahnefried W, Lin X. Enterolactone inhibits insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor signaling in human prostatic carcinoma PC-3 cells. J Nutr 2009 Apr; 139(4): 653-59.

Chen LH, Fank J, Li H, Denmark-Wahnefried W, Lin X. Enterolactone induces apoptosis in human prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells via a mitochondrial-mediated, caspase-dependent pathway. Mol Cancer Ther 2007 Sep; 6(9): 2581-90.

Heald CL, Ritchie MR, Bolton-Smith C, Morton MS, Alexander FE. Phyto-oestrogens and risk of prostate cancer in Scottish men. Br J Nutr 2007 Aug; 98(2): 388-96.

Hedelin M, Klint A, Chang ET et al. Dietary phytoestrogen, serum enterolactone and risk of prostate cancer: the cancer prostate Sweden study. Cancer Causes Control 2006 Mar; 17(2): 169-80.

Huang ZL, Liu HY. Expression of galectin-3 in liver metastasis of colon cancer and the inhibitory effect of modified citrus pectin. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2008 Aug; 28(8): 1358-61.

Jackson CL, Dreaden TM, Theobald LK, Tran NM, Beal TL et al. Pectin induces apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells: correlation of apoptotic function with pectin structure. Glycobiology 2007 Aug; 17(8): 805-19.

Liu HY, Huang ZL, Yang GH, Lu WQ, Yu NR. Inhibitory effect of modified citrus pectin on liver metastases in a mouse colon cancer model. World J Gastroenterol 2008 Dec 28; 14(48): 7386-91.

McCann SE, Muti P, Vito D, et al. Dietary lignin intakes and risk of pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer. Int J Cancer 2004 Sep 1; 111(3): 440-43

Milder IEJ, Arts ICW, Van de Putte B, Venema DP, Hollman PCH. Lignan contents of Dutch plant foods: a database including lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol, and matairesinol. Br J Nutr 2005; 93:393-402

Pantuck AJ, Leppert JT, Zomorodian N, et al. Phase II study of pomegranate juice for men with rising prostate-specific antigen following surgery or radiation for prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2006; 12(13):4018-26.

Saleem M, Kim HJ, Ali MS, Lee YS. An update on bioactive plant lignans. Nat Prod Rep 2005 Dec; 22(6): 696-716.

Sartippour MR, Seeram NP, Rao JY, et al. Ellagitannin-rich pomegranate extract inhibits angiogenesis in prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo. Int J Oncol 2008 Feb; 32(2):475-80.

Seeram NP, Adams LS, Henning SM, et al. In vitro antiproliferative, apoptotic and antioxidant activities of punicalagin, ellagic acid and a total pomegranate tannin extract are enhanced in combination with other polyphenols as found in pomegranate juice. J Nutr Biochem 2005 Jun; 16(6):360-7.; and Albrecht M, Jiang W, Kumi-Diaka J, et al. Pomegranate extracts potentially suppress proliferation, xenograft growth, and invasion of human prostate cancer cells. J Med Food 2004; 7(3):274-83.

Shannon J, Phoutrides E, Palma A, Farris P et al. Folate intake and prostate cancer risk: a case-control study. Nutr Cancer 2009; 61(5): 617-28

Wang LQ. Mammalian phytoestrogens: enterodiol and enterolactone. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2002 Sep 25; 777(1-2): 289-309.

Protein

American Association for Cancer Research (Mar. 17, 2008) Soy compound may halt spread of prostate cancer. Science Daily retrieval Aug. 21, 2009 from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/03/080314085038.htm

Campbell WW, Johnson CA, McCabe GP, Carnell NS. Dietary protein requirements of younger and older adults. Am J Clin Nutr 2008 Nov; 88(5): 1322-29.

Daniels K. The Whole Soy Story. Washington DC: New Trends Publishing, 2005.

Goodin S, Shen F, Shih WJ, Dave N et al. Clinical and biological activity of soy protein powder supplementation in healthy male volunteers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007; 16(4): 829-33.

Hamilton-Reeves JM, Vazquez G, Duval SJ, Phipps WR, Kurzer MS, Messina MJ. Clinical studies show no effects of soy protein or isoflavones on reproductive hormones in men: results of a meta-analysis. Fertil Steril 2009 Jun 11.

Moline B, Georgel P. Genetic and epigenetic regulation of prostate cancer by genistein. Drug News Perspect 2009; 22(5): 247-54.

Organic Consumers Association. Genetically engineered foods may cause rising food allergies. May 2007

Organic Consumers Association. Soybean-seed lawsuits pit farmers against biotechnology companies. April 5, 2000.

The Organic & Non-GMO Report. More US farmers planting non-GMO soybeans this year. Accessed Feb. 19, 2010: http://www.non-gmoreport.com/articles/mar09/farmers_planting_non-gmo_soybeans.php

Raffoul JJ, Wang Y, Kucuk O, Forman JD, Sarkar FH, Hillman GG. Genistein inhibits radiation-induced activation of NF-kappaB in prostate cancer cells promoting apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest. BMC Cancer 2006 Apr 26; 6:107; Kazi A, Daniel KG, Smith DM, Kumar NB, Dou QP. Inhibition of the proteasome activity, a novel mechanism associated with the tumor cell apoptosis-inducing ability of genistein. Biochem Pharmacol 2003 Sep 15; 66(6): 965-76.

Tariq N, Jenkins DJ, Vidgen E, Fleshner N, Kendall CW et al. Effect of soluble and insoluble fiber diets on serum prostate specific antigen in men. J Urol 2000 Jan; 163(1): 114-18

Singh RP, Agarwal C, Agarwal R. Inositol hexaphosphate inhibits growth and induces G1 arrest and apoptotic death of prostate carcinoma DU145 cells: modulation of CDKI-CDK-cyclin and pRb-related protein-E2F complexes. Carcinogenesis 2003 Mar; 24(3): 555-63.

Singh RP, Sharma G, Mallikarjuna GU, Dhanalakshmi S, Agarwal C, Agarwal R. In vivo suppression of hormone-refractory prostate cancer growth by inositol hexaphosphate: induction of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 and inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor. Clin Cancer Res 2004 Jan 1; 10(1 Pt 1): 244-50

Yan L, Spitznagel EL. Soy consumption and prostate cancer risk in men: a revisit of a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 2009 Apr; 89(4): 1155-63.

Omega 3

Chavarro JE, Stampfer MJ, Hall MN, Sesso HD, Ma J A 22-y prospective study of fish intake in relation to prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Am J Clin Nutr 2008 Nov; 88(5): 1297-303.

Environment America. Accessed January 2010. http://www.environmentamerica.org/uploads/e6/53/e6534339a34197ea1c06a80f2b2db277/Wasting-Our-Waterways-vAM.pdf

Fradet V, Cheng I, Casey G, Witte JS. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids, cyclooxygenase-2 genetic variation, and aggressive prostate cancer risk. Clin Cancer Res 2009 Apr 1; 15:2559

Hedelin M, Chang ET, Wiklund F, Bellocco R, Klint A, Adolfsson J, Shahedi K, Xu J et al. Association of frequent consumption of fatty fish with prostate cancer risk is modified by COX-2 polymorphism. Int J Cancer 2007 Jan 15; 120(2): 398-405.

Leitzmann MF, Stampfer MJ, Michaud DS, Augustsson K, Colditz GC, Willett WC, Giovannucci EL. Dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and the risk of prostate cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 2004 Jul; 80(1): 204-16

Meng L et al.  http://americanheart.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=43&item=862

Fats

Astorg P. Dietary fatty acids and colorectal and prostate cancers: epidemiological studies. Bull Cancer 2005 Jul; 92(7): 670-84.

Chavarro JE, Stampfer MJ, Campos H, Kurth T, Willett WC, Ma J. A prospective study of trans-fatty acid levels in blood and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers & Prev 2008 Jan; 17: 95-101.

Crowe FL, Key TJ, Appleby PN, Travis RC, Overvad K, Jakobsen MU et al. Dietary fat intake and risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 2008 May; 87(5): 1405-13.

Food and Drug Administration Code of Federal Regulations; available at http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/SCRIPTs/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm

Sieri S, Krogh V, Ferrari P, Berrino F, Pala V, Thiébaut AC, et al. Dietary fat and breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 2008 Nov; 88(5): 1304-12.

Wolk A, Bergstrom R, Hunter D, Willett W et al. A prospective study of association of monounsaturated fat and other types of fat with risk of breast cancer. Arch Intern Med 1998; 158:41-45.

Whole and Natural

Bandyopadhvay A, Ghoshal S, Mukherjee A. Genotoxicity testing of low-calorie sweeteners: aspartame, acesulfame-K, and saccharin. Drug Chem Toxicol 2008; 31(4): 447-57.

Benbrook C, Zhao X, Yanez J, Davis N. Andrews P. New evidence confirms the nutritional superiority of plant-based organic foods. State of Science Review 2008 Mar. 20.

Center for Science in the Public Interest: http://www.cspinet.org/reports/chemcuisine.htm

Consumer Reports, December 2009

Dangour AD, Dodhia SK, Hayter A, Allen E, Lock K, Uauy R. Nutritional quality of organic foods: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr 2009 Jul;

Dufault R, LeBlanc B, Schnoll R, Cornett C, Schweitzer L et al. Mercury from chlor-alkali plants: measured concentrations in food product sugar. Environmental Health 2009 Jan 26; 8:2

Environmental Working Group, Shoppers Guide to Pesticides; http://www.foodnews.org/methodology.php

Gu M, Roy S, Raina K, Agarwal C, Agarwal R. Inositol hexaphosphate suppresses growth and induces apoptosis in prostate carcinoma cells in culture and nude mouse xenograft: PI3K-Akt pathway as potential target. Cancer Res 2009 Nov. 17.

Huen K, Harley K, Brooks J, Hubbard A, Bradman A, Eskenazi B, Holland N. Developmental changes in PON1 enzyme activity in young children and effects of PON1 polymorphisms. Environ Health Perspect 2009 Oct; 117(10): 1632-38

Kissinger M, Rust S. US lawmakers move to ban BPA from food, beverage containers. Journal Sentinel March 13, 2009.

Kissinger M, Rust S. BPA leaches from ‘safe” products. Journal Sentinel Nov. 15, 2008

Li D et al. Human Reproduction Nov. 2009 online

Lim U, Subar AF, Mouw T, Hartge P, Morton LM et al. Consumption of aspartame-containing beverages and incidence of hematopoietic and brain malignancies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006; 15

National Cancer Institute, assessed Jan. 16, 2010; http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/artificial-sweeteners

Prins GS. Endocrine disruptors and prostate cancer risk. Endocr Relat Cancer 2008 Sep; 15(3): 649-56

Singh RP, Agarwal C, Agarwal R. Inositol hexaphosphate inhibits growth, and induces G1 arrest and apoptotic death of prostate carcinoma DU145 cells: modulation of CDKI-CDK-cyclin and pRb-related protein-E2F complexes. Carcinogenesis 2003 Mar; 24(3):555-63.

Singh RP, Sharma G, Mallikarjuna GU, Dhanalakshmi S, Agarwal C, Agarwal R. In vivo suppression of hormone-refractory prostate cancer growth by inositol hexaphosphate induction of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 and inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor. Clin Cancer Res 2004 Jan 1; 19(1 Pt 1): 244-50.

Soffritti M, Belpoggi F, Esposti DD, Lambertini L. Aspartame induces lymphomas and leukaemias in rats. Eur J Oncology 2005; 10:107-16.

Soffritti M, Belpoggi F, Esposti DD, Lambertini L, Tibaldi E, Rigano A. First experimental demonstration of the multipotential carcinogenic effects of aspartame administered in the feed to Sprague-dawley rats. Environ Health Perspect 2006; 114:379-85.

Vogel SA. The politics of plastics: the making and unmaking of bisphenol a “safety.” Am J Public Health 2009 Nov; 99 Suppl 3:S559-66.

Green Tea

Adhami VM, Malik A, Zaman N, et al. Combined inhibitory effects of green tea polyphenols and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors on the growth of human prostate cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Clinical Cancer Research 2007; 13:1611-19.

Bettuzzi S, Brausi M, Rizzi F, et al.  Chemoprevention of human prostate cancer by oral administration of green tea catechins in volunteers with high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia: a preliminary report from a one-year proof-of-principle study. Cancer Research 2006; 66(2):1234-40.

Butt MS, Sultan MT. Green tea: nature’s defense against malignancies. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2009; 49(5):463-73.

Carter O, Dashwood RH, Wang R, Dashwood WM, Orner GA, et al. Comparison of white tea, green tea, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, and caffeine as inhibitors of PhlP-induced colonic aberrant crypts. Nutr Cancer 2007; 58(1): 60-65

Gupta S, Ahmad N, Mohan RR, et al. Prostate cancer chemoprevention by green tea: in vitro and in vivo inhibition of testosterone-mediated induction of ornithine decarboxylase.  Cancer Research 1999; 59(9):2115-20.

Gupta S, Ahmad N, Nieminen AL, Mukhtar H. Growth inhibition, cell-cycle dysregulation, and induction of apoptosis by green tea constituent (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in androgen-sensitive and androgen-insensitive human prostate carcinoma cells. Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology 2000; 164(1):82-90.

Heilbrun LK, Nomura A, Stemmermann GN. Black tea consumption and cancer risk: a prospective study. Br J Cancer 1986; 54:677-83.

Hussain T, Gupta S, Adhami VM, Mukhtar H. Green tea constituent epigallocatechin-3-gallate selectively inhibits COX-2 without affecting COX-1 expression in human prostate carcinoma cells. Intl J Cancer 2005; 113(4):660-69.

Jain MG, Hislop GT, Howe GR, et al. Alcohol and other beverage use and prostate cancer risk among Canadian Men. International Journal of Cancer 1998; 78(6):707-11.

Jian L, Xie LLP, Lee AH, Binns CW. Protective effect of green tea against prostate cancer: a case-control study in southeast China. Intl J Cancer 2004; 108(1):130-35.

Kurahashi N, Sasazuki S, et al for the JPHC Study Group. Green tea consumption and prostate cancer risk in Japanese men: a prospective study. Am J Epidemiol 2008; 167(1): 71-77.

McLarty J, Bigelow RLH, Smith M, Elmajian D, Ankem M, Cardelli JA. Tea polyphenols decrease serum levels of prostate-specific antigen, hepatocye growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor in prostate cancer patients and inhibit production of hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor in vitro. Cancer Prev Res 2009 Jun 19; online 10.1158/1940-6207.

Ogunleye AA, Xue F, Michels KB. Green tea consumption and breast cancer risk or recurrence: a meta-analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2010 Jan; 119(2): 477-84

Richard D, Kefi K, Barbe U, Poli A, Bausero P, Visioli F. Weight and plasma lipid control by decaffeinated green tea. Pharmacol Res 2009 May; 59(5): 351-54.

Santana-Rios G, Orner GA, Amantana A, Provost C, Wu SY, Dashwood RH. Potent antimutagenic activity of white tea in comparison with green tea in the Salmonella assay. Mutat Res 2001 Aug 22; 495(1-2): 61-74

Shrubsole MJ, Lu W, Chen Z, Shu XO, Zheng Y, Dai Q et al. Drinking green tea modestly reduces breast cancer risk. J Nutr 2009 Feb; 139(2): 310-16.

Tanabe N, Suzuki H. Aizawa Y, Seki N. Consumption of green and roasted teas and the risk of stroke incidence: results from the Tokamachi-Nakasato cohort study in Japan. Int J Epidemiol 2008 Oct; 37(5): 1030-40.

Foods to Avoid

Cardoso LE, Falcao PG, Sampaio FJ. Increased and localized accumulation of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycns in the hyperplastic human prostate. BJU Int 2004 Mar; 93(4): 532-38.

Chatsudthipong V, Muanprasat C. Stevioside and related compounds: therapeutic benefits beyond sweetness. Pharmacol Ther 2009 Jan; 121(1): 41-54.

De Klerk Dp, Lee DV, Human HJ. Glycosaminoglyans of human prostatic cancer. J Urol 1984; 131:1008-12.

Food and Drug Administration. List of foods that contain acrylamide. As seen at http://drbenkim.com/articles/acrylamide-food.htm

Fuhr U, Boettcher MI, Kinzig-Schippers M, et al. Toxicokinetics of acrylamide in humans after ingestion of a defined dose in a test meal to improve risk assessment for acrylamide carcinogenicity. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 2006; 15(2):266–271.

Gong Z, Kristal AR, Schenk JM, Tangen CM, Goodman PJ, Thompson IM. Alcohol consumption, finasteride, and prostate cancer risk: results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. Cancer 2009 Aug 15; 115(16): 3661-69.

Kaadige MR, Looper RE, Kamalanaadhan S, Ayer DE. Glutamine-dependent anapleurosis dictates glucose uptake and cell growth by regulating MondoA transcriptional activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2009 Sep 1; 106(35): 14878-83

Park Y, Leitzmann MF, Subar AF, Hollenbeck A, Schatzkin A. Dairy food, calcium, and risk of cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Arch Intern Med 2009; 169(4): 391-401.

Park Y, Mitrou PN, Kipnis V, Hollenbeck A, Schatzkin A, Leitzmann MF. Calcium, dairy foods, and risk of incident and fatal prostate cancer: the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Am J Epidemiol 2007 Dec 1:166(11): 1270-79.

Ricciardelli C, Quinn DI, Raymond WA, et al. Elevated levels of peritumoral chondroitin sulfate are predictive of poor prognosis in patients treated by radical prostatectomy for early-stage prostate cancer. Cancer Res 1999; 59:2324-28.

Sakko AJ, Butler MS, Byers S, Reinboth BJ, Stahl J, Kench JG et al. Immunohistochemical level of unsulfated chondroitin disaccharides in the cancer stroma is an independent predictor of prostate cancer relapse. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008 Sep; 17(99): 2488-97.

Sinha R, Park Y, Graubard BI, Leitzmann MF, et al. Meat and meat-related compounds and risk of prostate cancer in a large prospective cohort study in the United States. Am J Epidemiol 2009 Nov 1; 179(9): 1165-77.

Takasaki M, Konoshima T, Kozuka M, Tokuda H, et al. Cancer preventive agents. Part 8: Chemopreventive effects of stevioside and related compounds. Bioorg Med Chem 2009 Jan 15; 17(2): 600-5.

Zheng W, Lee SA. Well-done meat intake, heterocyclic amine exposure, and cancer risk. Nutr Cancer 2009; 61(4): 437-46.

Supplements

Akinlove O, Adaramove O, Kareem O. Changes in antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in Nigerian patients with prostate carcinoma. Pol Arch Med Wewn 2009 Sep; 119(9): 526-32.

Baron A, Mancini M, Caldwell E, Cabrelle A, Bernardi P, Pagano F. Serenoa repens extract targets mitochondria and activates the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in human prostate cancer cells. BJU Int 2009 May; 103(9): 1275-83

Berges RR, Windeler J. Trampisch HJ et al. Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of  beta-sitosterol in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Lancet 1995; 345(8964): 1529-32.

Bidoli E, Talamini R, Zucchetto A, Bosetti C, Negri E et al. Dietary vitamins E and C and prostate cancer risk. Acta Oncol 2009; 48(6): 890-94.

Boros LG, Brandes JL, Lee WN et al. Thiamine supplementation to cancer patients: a double edged sword. Anticancer Res 1998; 18(1B): 595-602.

Buck AC, Cox R, Rees RW, et al. Treatment of outflow tract obstruction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia with the pollen extract, Cernilton. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Br J Urol 1990; 66(4):398-404.

Carbin BE, Larsson O, Lindahl O. Treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia with phytosterols. Br J Urol 66(6):639-41. Described in PDR for Herbal Medicines, 3rd edition, Montvale,NJ: Thomson PDR., 2004. p. 664.

Cedars-Sinai Medical Center website. Accessed Jan. 17, 2010; http://www.csmc.edu/3430.html

Chavez-Santoscoy RA, Gutierrez-Uribe JA, Serna-Saldivar SO. Phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity and in vitro cancer cell cytotoxicity of nine prickly pear (Opuntia spp). Juices. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2009 Jun; 64(2): 146-52.

Cho WC, Leung KN. In vitro and in vivo immunomodualting and immunorestorative effects of Astragalus membranaceus. J Ethnopharmacol 2007 Aug 15; 113(1): 132-41.

Cho WC, Leung KN. In vitro and in vivo anti-tumor effects of Astragalus membraneceus. Cancer Lett 2007a Jul 8; 252(1): 43-54

Clement-Kruzel S, Hwang SA, Kruzel MC, Dasgupta A, Actor JK. Immune modulation of macrophage pro-inflammatory response by goldenseal and Astragalus extracts. Journal of Medicinal Food 2008 Sep; 11(3): 493-98.

Coulter ID, Hardy ML, Morton SC, Hilton LG, Tu W, Valentine D, Shekelle PG. Antioxidants vitamin C and vitamin E for the prevention and treatment of cancer. J Gen Intern Med 2006 Jul; 21(7): 735-44.

Damrau F. Benign prostatic hypertrophy: Amino acid therapy for symptomatic relief. J Am Geriatr Soc 1962; 10:426-30.

Debruyne F, Koch G, Boyle P, et al. Comparison of a phytotherapeutic agent (Permixon) with an alpha-blocker (Tamsulosin) in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a 1-year randomized international study. Eur Urol 2002;41(5):497-506.

Dixon, Suzanne. Are lycopene supplements a good idea for you? University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, nd. Accessed Jan. 16, 2010: http://www.cancer.med.umich.edu/support/lycopene.shtml

Dording CM, Fisher L, Papakostas G, Farabaugh A, Sonawalla S, Fava M, Mischoulon D. A double-blind, randomized, pilot dose-finding study of maca root (L. meyenii) for the management of SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction. CNS Neurosci Ther 2008 Fall; 14(3): 182-91

Drug.com website: http://www.drugs.com/npc/bee-pollen.html

Du S, Shi L, Zhang H, et al. [Relationship between dietary nutrients intakes and human prostate cancer.] Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 1997;26(2):122-125.

Eberding A, Madera C, Xie S, Wood CA, Brown PN, Guns ES. Evaluation of the antiproliferative effects of Essiac on in vitro and in vivo models of prostate cancer compared to paclitaxel. Nutr Cancer 2007; 58(2): 188-96.

Feinblatt HM, Gant JC. Palliative treatment of benign prostatic hypertrophy: value of glycine-alanine-glutamic acid combination. J Maine Med Assoc 1958 Mar; 49(3): 99-101

Friederich M, Theurer C, Schiebel-Schlosser G. Prosta Fink Forte capsules in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Multicentric surveillance study in 2245 patients. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd 2000 Aug; 7(4): 200-4.

Gaziano JM, Glynn RJ, Christen WG et al. Vitamins E and C in the prevention of prostate and total cancer in men: the Physicians’ Health Study II randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2009; 301(1): 52-62.

Gonzalez A, Peters U, Lampe JW, et al. Zinc intake from supplements and diet and prostate cancer. Nutr Cancer 2009; 61(2):206-215.

Gonzales CG, Gonzales C, Gonzales-Castaneda C. Lepidium meyenii (Maca): a plant from the highlands of Peru—from tradition to science. Forsch Koomplementmed 2009 Dec; 16(6): 373-80

Gonzales GF et al. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) improved semen parameters in adult men. Asia J Andology 2001; 3(4): 301-4

Gonzales GF et al. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on sexual desire and its absent relationship with serum testosterone levels in adult healthy men. Andrologia 2002; 34(6): 367-72

Gossell-Williams M, Davis A, O’Connor N. Inhibition of testosterone-induced hyperplasia of the prostate of Sprague-dawley rats by pumpkin seed oil. J Med Food 2006 Summer; 9(2): 284-86.

Grups JW, Schievel-Schlosser G. Therapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia. 1995;Therapiewoche 8:495-498. Described in PDR for Herbal Medicines, 3rd edition, Montvale, NJ: Thomson PDR., 2004. p. 664.

Hamvas A, Corradi G, Hegedus M, Frang D. Experience with the Peponen capsule in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Pumpkin seed oil and prostate study. Intl Urol Nephrol 1991; 23(1): 51-55.

Hartman TJ, Woodson K, Stolzenberg-Solomon R, et al. Association of B-vitamins pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (B(6)), B(12), and folate with lung cancer risk in older men. Am J Epidemiol 2001; 153(7):688-94.

HealthLibrary: http://healthlibrary.epnet.com/GetContent.aspx?token=e0498803-7f62-4563-8d47-5fe33da65dd4&chunkiid=21555

Hudson TS, Wang TC, et al. Differential effects of resveratrol on androgen-responsive LNCaP human prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Carcinogenesis 2008; 29(10):2001-10.

Hultdin J, Van Guelpen B, Bergh A et al. Plasma folate, vitamin Bq12, and homocysteine and prostate cancer risk: a prospective study. Int J Cancer 2005; 113(5): 819-24.

Ishani A, MacDonald R, Nelson D, Rutks I, Wilt TJ. Pygeum africanum for the treatment of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: a systematic review and quantitative meta-analysis. Am J Med 2000 Dec 1; 109(8): 654-64.

Johansson M, Van Guelpen B, Vollset SE, et al. One-carbon metabolism and prostate cancer risk: prospective investigation of seven circulating B vitamins and metabolites. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009; 18(5):1538-43.

Johansson M, Appleby PN, Allen NE et al. Ciruclating concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 in relation to prostate cancer risk: results form the Euroepan prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008; 17(2): 279-85.

Ju J, Picinich SC, Yang Z, Zhao Y, Suh N, Kong AN, Yang CS. Cancer preventive activities of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Carcinogenesis 2009 Sep 11.

Kasperzyk JL, Fall K, Mucci LA et al. One-carbon metabolism-related nutrients and prostate cancer risk. Am J Clin Nutr 2009 July 1.

Kazi A, Daniel KG, Smith DM, et al. Inhibition of the proteasome activity, a novel mechanism associated with the tumor cell apoptosis-inducing ability of genistein. Biochem Pharmacol 2003;66(6):965-76.

Kempf M, Heil S, Hasslauer I, Schmidt L, von der Ohe K, Theuring C, Reinhard A, Schreier P, Beuerle T. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in pollen and pollen products. Mol Nutr Food Res 2010 Feb; 54(2): 292-300.

Klippel KF, Hiltl DM, Schipp B. A multicentric, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of beta-sitosterol (phytosterol) for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. German BPH-Phyto Study group. Br J Urol 1997;80(3): 427-32.

Komatsu S, Yanaka N, Matsubara K, et al. Antitumor effect of vitamin B6 and its mechanisms. Biochim Biophys Acta 2003; 1647(1-2):127-30.

Konrad L, Muller HH, Lenz C, Laubinger H, Aumuller G, Lichius JJ. Antiproliferative effect on human prostate cancer cells by a stinging nettle root (Urtica dioica) extract. Planta Med. 2000;66(1):44-47.

Kristal AR, Arnold KB, Schenk JM, et al. Dietary patterns, supplement use, and the risk of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia: results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. Am J Epidemiol 2008; 167(8):925-34.

Lakshman M, Xu L, Ananthanarayanan V, Cooper J, Takimoto CH et al. Dietary genistein inhibits metastasis of human prostate cancer in mice. Cancer Res 2008 Mar 15; 68(6): 2024-32.

Lawson KA, Wright ME, Subar A, Mouw T et al. Multivitamin use and risk of prostate cancer in the National Institutes of Health-AARP diet and health study. JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2007 99(10):754-764.

Leitzmann MF, Stampfer MJ, Wu K, Colditz GA, Willett WC, Giovannucci EL. Zinc supplement use and risk of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2003 Jul 2; 95(13): 1004-7

Leonard SS, Keil D, Mehlman T, et al. Essiac tea: scavenging of reactive oxygen species and effects on DNA damage. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;103(2):288-96.

Linares E, Thimonier C, Degre M. The effect of NeOpuntia on blood lipid parameters—risk factors for the metabolic syndrome (syndrome X). Adv Ther 2007 Sep-Oct; 24(5): 1115-25.

Lippman SM, Klein EA, Goodman PJ, et al. Effect of Selenium and Vitamin E on Risk of Prostate Cancer and Other Cancers: The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). JAMA 2009 Jan; 301(1):39-51.

Lopatkin N. Sivkov A, Schlafke S, Funk P et al. Efficacy and safety of a combination of Sabal and Urtica extract in lower urinary tract symptoms—long-term follow-up of a placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter trial. Int Urol Nephrol 2007; 39(4): 1137-46.

Malafa MP, Fokum FD, Andoh J, et al. Vitamin E succinate suppresses prostate tumor growth by inducing apoptosis. Int J Cancer 2006; 118(10):2441-47.

McCann SE, Ambrosone CB, Moysich KB et al. Intakes of selected nutrients, foods, and phytochemicals and prostate cancer risk in western New York. Nutr Cancer 2005; 53(1): 33-41.

Moline B, Georgel P. Genetic and epigenetic regulations of prostate cancer by genistein. Drug News Perspect 2009; 22(5):247-254.

Nakajima Y, Tsuruma K, Shimazawa M, Mishima S, Hara H. Comparison of bee products based on assays of antioxidant capacities. BMC Complement Altern Med 2009 Feb 26; 9:4.

No authors listed. Selenium supplementation loses favor. Mayo Clin Health Lett 2009 Jun; 27(6): 4

Ottenweller J, Putt K. Blumenthal EJ et al. Inhibition of prostate cancer-cell proliferation by Essiac. J Altern Complement Med 2004; 10(4): 687-91.

PDR for Herbal Medicine, by Medical Economics. Published by Thomson Healthcare, December 1998.

Pelucci C, Galeone C, Talamini R, et al. Dietary folate and risk of prostate cancer in Italy. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005;14(4):944-948.

Petrangeli E, Lenti L, Buchetti B, Chinzari P, Sale P et al. Lipido-sterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr, Permixon) treatment affects human prostate cancer cell membrane organization. J Cell Physiol 2009 Apr; 219(1): 69-76.

Raffoul JJ, Wang Y, Kucuk O, et al. Genistein inhibits radiation-induced activation of NF-kappa B in prostate cancer cells promoting apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest. BMC Cancer 2006; 6:107.

Safarinejad MR. Urtica dioica for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. J Herb Pharmacother 2005; 5(4):1-11.

Salam Research. Accessed Jan. 16, 2010. http://www.salamresearch.com/html/milk_thistle_product.html

Schmid Ron. Website on supplement additives. Accessed Feb. 22, 2010. http://www.drrons.com/dietary-supplements-industry-facts-toc.htm

“Selenium Intake May Worsen Prostate Cancer In Some, Study Reports.” ScienceDaily.com. Accessible at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/06/090625201820.htm. Viewed August 12, 2009.

Shahed AR, Shoskes DA. Oxidative stress in prostatic fluid of patients with chronic pelvic pain syndrome: correlation with gram positive bacterial growth and treatment response. J Androl 2000; 21:669-75

Shoskes DA, Zeitlin SI, Shahed A, et al. Quercetin in men with category III chronic prostatitis: a preliminary prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Urology 1999;54(6):960-963.

Singh RP, Raina K, Sharma G, Agarwal R. Silibinin inhibits established prostate tumor growth, progression, invasion, and metastasis and suppresses tumor angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate model mice. Clin Cancer Res 2008 Dec 1; 14(23): 7773-80

Skaudickas D, Kondrotas AJ, Kevelaitis E, Venskutonis PR. The effect of Echinacea purpurea (L) Moench extract on experimental prostate hyperplasia. Phytother Res 2009 Oct; 23(10): 1474-78.

Stevens VL, Rodriquez C, Pavluck AL, et al. Folate nutrition and prostate cancer incidence in a large cohort of US men. Am J Epidemiol 2006; 163(11):989-96.

Syed DN, Khan N, Afaq F, et al. Chemoprevention of prostate cancer through dietary agents: progress and promise. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007; 16(11):2193-2203.

Tacklind J, MacDonald R, Rutks I, Wilt TJ. Serenoa repens for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009 Apr 15; (2): CD001423.

University of Maryland Medical Center: http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/astragalus-000223.htm

University of Maryland Medical Center: http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/cats-claw-000229.htm

University of Maryland Medical Center: http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/echinacea-000239.htm

University of Maryland Medical Center: http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/asian-ginseng-000249.htm

University of Maryland Medical Center: http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/benign-prostatic-000018.htm

University of Maryland Medical Center: http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/quercetin-000322.htm

University of Maryland Medical Center: http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/benign-prostatic-000018.htm

University of Maryland Medical Center: http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/stinging-nettle-000275.htm

Urology Channel.com Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)/enlarged prostate. Accessible at http://www.urologychannel.com/prostate/bph/treatment_alt.shtml. Viewed Jan. 13, 2010.

Wang W, Rayburn ER, Hao M, et al. Experimental therapy of prostate cancer with novel natural product anti-cancer ginsenosides. Prostate 2008; 68(8):809-19.

WebMD: http://www.webmd.com/balance/bee-pollen-benefits-and-side-effects

Weil, Andrew. http://www.drweil.com/drw/u/id/QAA400157

Wu YD, Lou YJ. A steroid fraction of chloroform extract form bee pollen of Brassica campestris induces apoptosis in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Phytother Res 2007 Nov; 21(11): 1087-91

Wu KJ, Zeng J, Zhu GD, Zhang LL, Zhang D, Li L et al. Silibinin inhibits prostate cancer invasion, motility and migration by suppressing vimentin and MMP-2 expression. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2009 Aug; 30(8): 1162-68.

Zhang Y, Coogan P, Palmer JR, et al. Vitamin and mineral use and risk of prostate cancer: the case-control surveillance study. Cancer Causes Control 2009; 20(5):61-698.

Zi X, Agarwal R. Silibinin decreases prostate-specific antigen with cell growth inhibition via G1 arrest, leading to differentiation of prostate carcinoma cells: implications for prostate cancer intervention. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999;  96:7490-95.

Cancer-Killing Foods

Aggarwal BB, Harikumar KB. Potential therapeutic effects of curcumin, the anti-inflammatory agent against neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, autoimmune and neoplastic diseases. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2009 Jan; 41(1): 40-59.

Ahonen MH, Tenkanen L, Teppo L. Hakama M, Tuohimaa P. Prostate cancer risk and prediagnostic serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (Finland). Cancer Causes Control 2000 Oct; 11(9): 847-52.

Athanasiou A, Smith PA, Vakilpour S, Kumaran NM, Turner AE et al. Vanilloid receptor agonists and antagonists are mitochondrial inhibitors: how vanilloids cause non-vanilloid receptor mediated cell death. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2007 Mar 2; 354(1): 50-55.

Auborn KJ, Fan S, Rosen EM et al. Indole-3 carbinol is a negative regulator of estrogen. J Nutr 2003; 133(7 Suppl): 2470S-2475S.

Beliveau R, Gingras D. Foods to Fight Cancer. New York/London: DK Publishing, 2007.

Chan R, Lok K, Woo J. Prostate cancer and vegetable consumption. Mol Nutr Food Res 2009; 53(2): 201-16.

Chen TC, Holick MF. Vitamin D and prostate cancer prevention and treatment. Trends Endocrinol Metab 2003 Nov; 14(9): 423-30

Dorai T, Gehani N, Katz A. Therapeutic potential of curcumin in human prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2000 Aug; 3(2): 84-93

Dubost N, Beelman R, Peterson D, Royse D. Identification and quantification of ergothioneine in cultivated mushrooms by Liquid Chromatography – Mass Spectroscopy. The 230th ACS National Meeting, Washington, D.C., Wednesday, August 31, 2005.

Edinger MS, Koff WJ. Effect of the consumption of tomato paste on plasma prostate-specific antigen levels in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia. Braz J Med Biol Res 2006 Aug; 39(8): 1115-19

Ellinger S, Ellinger J, Stehle P. Tomatoes, tomato products and lycopene in the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer: do we have the evidence from intervention studies? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2006; 9(6): 722-27.

Ellinger S, Ellinger J, Muller SC, Stehle P. Tomatoes and lycopene in prevention and therapy—is there an evidence for prostate diseases? Aktuelle Urol 2009 Jan; 40(1): 37-43.

Feldman D, Skowronski RJ, Peehl DM. Vitamin D and prostate cancer. Adv Exp Med Biol 1995; 375:53-63.

Fukushima M, Ohashi T, Fujiwara Y, et al. Cholesterol-lowering effects of maitake (Grifola frondosa) fiber, shiitake (Lentinus edodes) fiber, and enokitake (Flammulina velutipes) fiber in rats. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2001 Sep; 226(8):758-65.

Galic J, Simunovic D. Prostate disease prevalence with epidemiological and hormonal analysis in randomly selected male population in Crotia. Coll Anthropol 2008; 32(4):1195-1202.

Gibbs A, Schwartzman J, Deng V, Alumkal J. Sulforaphane destabilizes the androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells by inactivating histone deacetylase 6. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2009 Sep 29; 106(39): 16663-68.

Giovannucci E, Ascherio A. Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC. Intake of carotenoids and retinol in relation to risk of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1995; 87:1767-76.

Gupta NP, Kumar R. Lycopene therapy in idiopathic male infertility—a preliminary report. Int Urol Nephrol 2002; 34(3): 369-72.

Gupta D, Lammersfed CA, Trukova K, et al. Vitamin D and prostate cancer risk: a review of the epidemiological literature. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2009 April 7.

Hanchette CL, Schwartz GG. Geographic patterns of prostate cancer mortality. Evidence for a protective effect of ultraviolet radiation. Cancer 1992 Dec 15; 70(12): 2861-69.

Herman JG, Stadelman HL, Roselli CE. Curcumin blocks CCL2-induced adhesion, motility and invasion, in part, through down-regulation of CCL2 expression and proteolytic activity. Int J Oncol 2009 May; 34(5): 1319-27.

Ho E, Clarke JD, Dashwood RH. Dietary sulforaphane, a histone deacetylase inhibitor for cancer prevention. J Nutr 2009 Dec; 139(12): 2393-96

Khor TO, Kuem Y-S, Lin W, et al. Combined inhibitory effects of curcumin and phenethyl isothiocyanate on the growth of human PC-3 prostate xenografts in immunodeficient mice. Cancer Res 2006 Jan. 15; 66(2): 613-21

Kirsch VA, Peters U, Mayne ST et al. Prospective study of fruit and vegetable intake and risk of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2007 Aug 1;99(15): 1200-9

Krishnan AV, Feldman D. Molecular pathways mediating the anti-inflammatory effects of calcitriol: implications for prostate cancer chemoprevention and treatment. Endocr Relat Cancer 2010 Jan 29; 17(1): R19-38.

Lou YR, Qiao S, Talonpoika R, et al. The role of vitamin D3 metabolism in prostate cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2004; 92(4):317-25.

Miller GJ, Stapleton GE, Hedlund TE, Moffat KA. Vitamin D receptor expression, 24-hydroxylase activity, and inhibition of growth by 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in seven human prostatic carcinoma cell lines. Clin Cancer Res 1995 Sep; 1(9): 997-1003.

Mills PK, Beeson WL, Phillips RL, Fraser GE. Cohort study of diet, lifestyle, and prostate cancer in Adventist men. Cancer 1989; 64:598-604.

Mori A, Lehmann S, O’Kelly J, Kumagai T, Desmond JC, Pervan M et al. Capsaicin, a component of red peppers, inhibits the growth of androgen-independent, p53 mutant prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res 2006 Mar 15; 66(6): 3222-29.

Newsome-Davis TE, Kenny LM, Ngan S, King J, Waxman J. The promiscuous receptor. BJU Int 2009 Nov; 104(9): 1204-7.

Ng ML, Yap AT. Inhibition of human colon carcinoma development by lentinan from shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes). J Altern Complement Med 2002 Oct; 8(5): 581-89.

Park SY, Cooney RV, Wilkens LR, Murphy SP, Henderson BE, Kolonel LN. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and prostate cancer risk: The Multiethnic Cohort. Eur J Cancer 2010 Jan 9.

Paul BD, Snyder SH. The unusual amino acid L-ergothioneine is a physiologic cytoprotectant. Cell Death Differ 2009 Nov 13

Peters U, Leitzmann MF, Chatterjee N, Wang Y, Albanes D, et al. Serum lycopene, other carotenoids, and prostate cancer risk: a nested case-control study in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007 May; 16(5): 962-68

Sanchez AM, Malagarie-Cazenaye S, Olea N et al. Apoptosis induced by capsaicin in prostate PC-3 cells involves ceramide accumulation, neutral sphingomyelinase, and JNK activation. Apoptosis 2007; 12(11): 2013-24.

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Schwarz S, Obermuller-Jevic UC, Hellmis E, Koch W, Jacobi G, Giesalski HK. Lycopene inhibits disease progression in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia. J Nutr 2008 Jan; 138(1): 49-53

Schwartz GG, Whitlatch LW, Chen TC, Lokeshwar BL, Holick MF. Human prostate cells synthesize 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 from 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1998 May; 7(5): 391-95.

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Trump DL, Chadha MK, Sunga AY, et al. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among patients with prostate cancer. BJU Int 2009 Apr 4.

Venkateswaran V, Klotz LH, Ramani M, Sugar LM et al. A combination of micronutrients is beneficial in reducing the incidence of prostate cancer and increasing survival in the Lady transgenic model. Cancer Prev Res (Phila Pa) 2009 May; 2(5): 473-83.

Vogt TM, Mayne ST, Graubard BI, Swanson CA, Sowell AL, et al. Serum lycopene, other serum carotenoids, and risk of prostate cancer in US Blacks and Whites. Am J Epidemiol 2002 Jun 1:155(11): 1023-32

Woo TC, Choo R, Jamieson M, Chander S, Vieth R. Pilot study: potential role of vitamin D (cholecalciferol) in patients with PSA relapse after definitive therapy. Nutr Cancer 2005; 51(1): 32-36.

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Ziglioli F, Frattini A, Maestroni U et al. Vanilloid-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells through a TRPV-1 dependent and an TRPV-1-independent mechanism. Acta Biomed 2009 Apr; 80(1): 13-20

Water

Environmental Protection Agency. Accessed January 21, 2010. http://www.epa.gov/safewater/faq/faq.html#safe

Institute of Medicine. Accessed January 20, 2010. http://www.iom.edu/Reports/2004/Dietary-Reference-Intakes-Water-Potassium-Sodium-Chloride-and-Sulfate.aspx

Valtin H. Drink at least eight glasses of water a day. Really? Is there scientific evidence for 8 x 8? Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2002 Aug 8

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